Racism and Citizenship - Exhibition

About

Racism and Citizenship

The tension between racism and citizenship over more than five centuries, from 1496 to the present, is at the core of the exhibition. Visual culture ‒ paintings, sculptures, engravings, posters, ceramics, chains, manilas, books, comic books, photographs and videos ‒ is mobilised to understand historical processes of segregation of minorities in Portugal and discrimination of natives in the colonial world.

Racism (prejudices concerning ethnic descent combined with discriminatory action) was always confronted with informal forms of integration, which became predominant in the postcolonial period. The assertion of citizenship (the right to live, work and participate) followed the Revolution of April 1974 and the independence of the colonies in 1975.

During the period under consideration, Muslim expulsion took place, as did the forced conversion of Jewish people, the slave trade, the colonization of territories in Africa, America and Asia, the abolition of slavery, decolonization and immigration.

The exhibition aims to encourage the public to question past and present relations between peoples, combining emigration with immigration, exclusion and integration, lack of rights and access to citizenship.

'Exhibition documents:

Racism and Citizenship (essay)

Racism and Citizenship (flyer)

Exhibition reviews:

La Lettura, 28 May 2017 (Italian)

Expresso, 6 May 2017 (Portuguese)

Publico, 8 May 2017 (Portuguese)

Exhibition Racism and Citizenship
6th May to 3rd September 2017
Padrão dos Descobrimentos, Lisbon
Curator: Francisco Bethencourt, Charles Boxer Professor, King's College London







Documentary

Exhibition curator Professor Francisco Bethencourt, Exhibition designer António Viana and Director of the Padrao dos Descobrimentos Margarida Kol de Carvalho discuss Racism and Citizenship.

This film is a collaboration between King’s College London’s Department of History, filmmaker Graham CopeKoga and Padrao dos Descobrimentos, supported by the Cultural Institute at King’s College London

The book that inspired the exhibition

Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century

Racisms is the first comprehensive history of racism, from the Crusades to the twentieth century. Demonstrating that there is not one continuous tradition of racism, Francisco Bethencourt shows that racism preceded any theories of race and must be viewed within the prism and context of social hierarchies and local conditions. In this richly illustrated book, Bethencourt argues that in its various aspects, all racism has been triggered by political projects monopolizing specific economic and social resources.

Racisms focuses on the Western world, but opens comparative views on ethnic discrimination and segregation in Asia and Africa. Bethencourt looks at different forms of racism, and explores instances of enslavement, forced migration, and ethnic cleansing, while analyzing how practices of discrimination and segregation were defended.

Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013), 444 pp. The book was translated into Portuguese: Racismos: das Cruzadas ao seculo XX, translated by Luis Oliveira Santos (Lisbon: Círculo de Leitores, 2015); the Italian translation: Razzismi. Dalle crociate al XX secolo, translated by Paola Palminiello (Bologna: Il Mulino, 2017).

Reviews

'masterly new book [...] Bethencourt's tone in treating the crimes and follies of humankind is unfailingly cool and analytically sophisticated [...] Bethencourt's achievement is to show that racism, in all its forms, was contextual and ultimately reformable, not innate and hence inevitable [...] Bethencourt tacks deftly between cultural and social history. His binocular vision marks Racisms out from most previous studies of its subject [...] Bethencourt's long-range view - deep in time, wide in space - puts more familiar turning points in the global history of racism into novel perspective [...] more ambitiously, Bethencourt draws out racism's purpose in combating egalitarianism in Europe after 1848, in cementing racial inequality in the United States and in promoting European incursions into Asia [...] When Bethencourt reaches the past hundred years or so, the examples of the Jewish pogroms in Russia, the Armenian genocide and the Nazi racial state amply confirm his hypothesis that political projects motivate racism', David Armitage, Times Literary Supplement

'As a comparative study of colonial behaviour Racisms is astonishing... Readers of Racisms will learn a great deal about colonial encounters that brought people of different regions, religions 'skin colours' and 'ethnicities' into contact with each other during the long centuries of European expansion', David Nirenberg, Literary Review

'To understand what fuelled such racist ideologies and practices, I can think of no better book than Francisco Bethencourt's Racisms. It is an ambitious bold project... Bethencourt addresses the 'scientific' turn in racial classifications systems... Bethencourt's summary is the clearest and most sophisticated to date... [An] impressive book', Joanna Bourke, New Statesman

'Racisms cataloguing of successive centuries of poisonous bigotry, of tangled, self-serving myth and murderous victimisation, creates a powerful cumulative effect... This is an unlovely history. But a necessary one that appears, sadly for the wrong reasons, at the right time', Ekow Eshun, Independent

'Bethencourt [combines] a panoramic vision with a vertical analysis of key topics, besides presenting intriguing questions. The richness of information is formidable; the logic of the argument irreproachable', Ronaldo Vainfas, Revista Tempo (Rio de Janeiro)

'Racisms provides a sweeping history of discrimination and prejudice that links these practices to ethnic differences and political power in an elegant and learned global history of one of the world’s most persistent problems', Stuart Schwartz, New West Indian Guide

'Bethencourt's incisive analysis ought to be compulsory reading in the think tanks, chanceries and ministeries of the developed world', Maria Misra, Prospect

'this is a book that for many years will be a world reference for the study of a persistent phenomenon', António Araújo, Público (justifying why the book had been chosen as the first non-fiction book published in Portugal in 2015)

Read the full review: Publico, 18 December 2015 (Portuguese)

Exhibition Partners

EXHIBITION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

COORDINATION

Margarida Kol de Carvalho
Maria Cecília Cameira

SCIENTIFIC COMISSIONER

Francisco Bethencourt – King’s College London

ART CONCEPTION AND REALIZATION

António Viana

SCIENTIFIC-EDUCATIONAL SUPPORT

António Camões Gouveia - FCSH da UNL / CHAM

Jorge Maroco Alberto - Professor do Ensino Básico
Raquel Pereira Henriques - FCSH da UNL / CHAM
Serviço Educativo - Padrão dos Descobrimentos

CONSULTING

Acesso Cultura

PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION CONSULTANT

Maria Helena Nunes – Mão de Papel

PRODUCTION ASSISTANT

Nuno Magalhães

GRAPHIC DESIGN OF EXHIBITION

Rita Cruz Neves

GRAPHIC MATERIALS

Oland - Denominação de Origem Criativa

AUDIOVISUAL PRODUCTION

Ricardo Mesquita

AUDIOVISUAL PROJECT

GMSC – Informática e Audiovisuais, Lda

EXECUTIVE ASSISTANTS

Conceição Romão
Rita Lonet

CONSTRUCTION

AS Pinheiro, Lda

VINYLS AND WALLPAPER

Escarigo Factory - Centro de Produção Digital

LIGHTING PLAN

Vitor Vajão

TRANSLATION

Kennis Translations

PAST AND PRESENT

Lisbon, Ibero-American Capital of Culture 2017

AN INITIATIVE

UCCI e Câmara Municipal de Lisboa

WITH

EGEAC, DIREÇÃO MUNICIPAL DE CULTURA, SECRETARIA GERAL

MAYOR OF LISBON

Fernando Medina

CULTURE COUNCILLOR OF LISBON

Catarina Vaz Pinto

CULTURE DIRECTOR OF LISBON

Manuel Veiga

BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF EGEAC

Joana Gomes Cardoso

Lucinda Lopes

GENERAL PROGRAMME COORDINATION

António Pinto Ribeiro

9H Arquitecturas Associadas Lda.
Ângela Ferreira
António Viana
Arquivo de Documentação Fotográfica
Arquivo Histórico Militar do Exército
Arquivo Municipal de Lisboa
Associação de Coleções – The Berardo Collection
Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal
Centro Português de Fotografia
Convento de Santa Clara – Porto
Direção Municipal de Urbanismo - CML

Fundação PLMJ
Idanha-a-Nova – Igreja Matriz
Jaime Marçal
João Manuel Loureiro
Kiluanji Kia Henda
Luís Pavão - LUPA
Museu da Cerâmica – Caldas da Rainha
Museu de Arte Sacra de Mértola
Museu de Artes Decorativas Portuguesas
Fundação Ricardo do Espírito Santo Silva
Museu de Lisboa – Palácio Pimenta
Museu José Malhoa – Caldas da Rainha

Museu Nacional de Arqueologia
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga
Museu Nacional de Etnologia
Museu Nacional de Grão Vasco - Viseu
Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência
(MUL/MUHNAC-ULisboa)
Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro - Coimbra
Museu Nacional Frei Manuel do Cenáculo - Évora
Nástio Mosquito
Vasco Araújo

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Av. Brasília 1400-038 Lisboa

info@padraodosdescobrimentos.pt